Selected letters are also available online:

http://www.louisianadigitallibrary.org/cdm4/results.php?CISOOP1=any&CISOFIELD1=CISOS EARCHALL&CISOROOT=/LSU_CFF&CISOBOX1=1281

VIGNAUD (HENRY) PAPERS

(Mss. 1281)

Inventory

Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections

Special Collections, Hill Memorial Library

Louisiana State University Libraries

Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University

Reformatted 2003

Revised 2011

CONTENTS OF INVENTORY

SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................... 3
BIOGRAPHICAL/HISTORICAL NOTE ...................................................................................... 4
SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE ................................................................................................... 4
INDEX TERMS .............................................................................................................................. 5
CONTAINER LIST ........................................................................................................................ 7
APPENDIX ..................................................................................................................................... 8

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SUMMARY

Size.

385 items

Geographic locations.

Louisiana; France

Inclusive dates.

1862-1909

Bulk dates.

N/A

Language.

Letters predominantly in French, with some letters in English.

Summary.

Papers of Henry Vignaud, consisting chiefly of letters from American and a few European journalists, diplomats, and historians.

Restrictions on access.

If microfilm is available, photocopies must be made from microfilm.

Related collections.

Henry Vignaud Letter, Mss. 241

Copyright.

Physical rights are retained by the LSU Libraries. Copyright is retained in accordance with U.S. copyright laws.

Citation.

Henry Vignaud Papers, Mss. 1281, Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections, LSU Libraries, Baton Rouge, La.

Stack locations.

C:66

Selected digitized letters available.

http://www.louisianadigitallibrary.org/cdm4/results.php?CISOOP1=any& CISOFIELD1=CISOSEARCHALL&CISOROOT=/LSU_CFF&CISOBOX1=1281

BIOGRAPHICAL/HISTORICAL NOTE

Vignaud was a native of New Orleans, worked as a journalist in New Orleans and Thibodaux until the Civil War, served in the Confederate military forces until the fall of New Orleans to Union forces in 1862, and then made his way to Paris and entered the service of the Confederate mission under John Slidell. After the war, he worked with the Romanian legation in Paris. In 1872, he joined the American legation in Paris and later rose to the rank of first secretary of the legation. Vignaud's distinction as an historian was achieved after the age of 70. His principle field of interest was Columbus and the discovery of America, and he was the author of several books, monographs, and articles on the subject.

SCOPE AND CONTENT NOTE

The Vignaud Papers consist of letters from Louisiana friends, including journalists Eugene Dumez and L. Placide Canonge, and jurist Edward Bermudez; friends and officials in the Department of State and the diplomatic service; Americans in public life; and literary figures, historians, journalists, and other writers.

A series of 89 letters (1862-1879), in French, from Eugene Dumez written in France and, beginning in 1864, from St. John the Baptist Parish constitutes the most important unit of the collection. The letters pertain to Civil War and Reconstruction, with particular emphasis on the Confederate missions to France and England and efforts to secure recognition of the Confederacy, and, after the arrival of Dumez in Louisiana, to the military, political, social, and economic conditions and problems in the state and throughout the South. Some information on late Civil War and post-war journalism in Louisiana is found in his letters as an editor of the French language newspapers, Le Meschacébé and L'Avant-Coureur. See appendix for description of Dumez letters.

A series of 75 letters (1865-1892), in French, from L. Placide Canonge, New Orleans writer, journalist, and editor of the newspaper L'Abeille de la Nouvelle-Orleans and the political and literary journal L'Epoque, contains information on literature, the theater, journalism, and other cultural matters in New Orleans.

A few personal letters (1886-1891), chiefly in French, from Edward Bermudez, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Louisiana, pertain to a visit to France and to friends and matters of mutual interest in Louisiana and France. Letters (1863-1909) from American writers reveal their appreciation of Vignaud's interest in their work and his services to them, and mention his work in historical research and writing. Scattered letters from correspondents include ones from George Bancroft, Justin Winsor, Daniel Coit Gilman, Fred Morrow Fling, G. W. Smalley, William Henry Trescot, Albert Rhodes, Grace King, Francis Wharton, A. Thorndike Rice, and Moncure Daniel Conway.

INDEX TERMS

American literature--Louisiana.

Americans--France--Paris.

Authors, American.

Bancroft, George, 1800-1891.

Bermudez, Edward, 1832-1892.

Canonge, L. Placide (Louis Placide), 1822-1893.

Confederate States of America--Foreign relations--France.

Confederate States of America--Foreign relations--Great Britain.

Conway, Moncure Daniel, 1832-1907.

Diplomatic and consular service, American--France.

Diplomats--United States.

Dumez, Eugene, 1824-1878.

Epoque (New Orleans, La.)

Fling, Fred Morrow, 1860-1934.

France--Foreign relations--Confederate States of America.

France--Foreign relations--United States.

French-American literature--Louisiana.

French-American newspapers.

Gilman, Daniel Coit, 1831-1908.

Great Britain--Foreign relations--Confederate States of America.

Historians--Louisiana.

Historiography.

Journalism--France.

Journalism--Louisiana.

Journalists--Louisiana.

Judges--Louisiana.

King, Grace Elizabeth, 1852-1932.

L'Abeille de la Nouvelle Orleans.

L'Avant-coureur.

Le Meschacébé.

Letters (correspondence)

Louisiana--Economic conditions--19th century.

Louisiana--History--Civil War, 1861-1865.

Louisiana--Politics and government--1861-1865.

Louisiana--Politics and government--1865-1950.

Louisiana--Social conditions--19th century.

Newspaper editors--Louisiana--New Orleans.

Reconstruction (U.S. history, 1865-1877)--Louisiana.

Rhodes, Albert, b. 1840.

Rice, Allen Thorndike, 1851-1889.

Saint John the Baptist Parish (La.)--History--19th century.

Slidell, John, 1793-1871.

Smalley, George W. (George Washburn), 1833-1916.

Soldiers--Louisiana--New Orleans.

Theater--France.

Theater--Louisiana.

Trescot, William Henry, 1822-1898.

United States. Dept. of State.

United States--Foreign relations--France.

Vignaud, Henry, 1830-1922.

Wharton, Francis, 1820-1889.

Winsor, Justin, 1831-1897.

CONTAINER LIST

Stack

Location

Box

Folders

Contents

C:66

1

1

Letters from Alvey Augustus Adee, Department of State, Washington, D.C. (1879-1892)

2

Letters and 1 printed item (chiefly in French) from Edward Bermudez (1886-1891)

3-4

Letters (in French) from L. Placide Cononge (1865-1892, undated)

5-6

Letters (in French) from Eugene Dumez (1862-1879)

2

7-9

Letters from American writers (1877-1909)

10-13

Letters, chiefly from legations of the United States (1863-1909)

APPENDIX

DESCRIPTION OF EUGENE DUMEZ LETTERS

12 September 1862

Nuits - Cote d'Or

Reports that bad state of his wife's health forces him to remain in France. Has met friends from Bourgogne whom he met while a journalist at Dijon. His companions are intractable on the subject of slavery and therefore sympathize with the North. It is the same all through France. The less numerous friends of the South, who understand the state of things better, are concerned with the government at Richmond has done nothing to win the support of the European democracies. An article in L'Opinion Nationale seems to hint at some project for recognizing the Confederate government, but this probably is just another illusion.

Requests news of Slidell family. Reports seeing Judge Rost Vichy. Advises Vignaud to see him, as he regards Vignaud as the best instrument of personal politics. Aucaigne can help. Reports meeting Rameau and giving him Vignaud's address. Advises Vignaud of people to contact.

6 January 1863

St. Just

The progress of Confederate arms is worth more to the cause than the good dispositions of the French government. The Siècle shows how the cause of the South is helped by the activities of Lee. If our successes continue, diplomacy will surely hasten the conclusion of the peace. Right now I find myself in an industrial country which suffers much from the scarcity of cotton; but the workers are unaware of the cause of their misery, which they attribute to the French government. The opinions of the middle class are formed largely by the newspapers. I met a doctor who has a friend in St. Martinville and is therefore much interested in American affairs. He said he ardently hoped for the victory of the North. Dumez wants to depart for Louisiana but finds obstacles in his path.

21 August 1863

Vichy

At Vichy, after having visited Burgundy and Berry, plans to go next to Dijon, from which he will return soon to make preparations to depart for America. Yesterday in St. Just, saw Judge Rost of St. Charles, La., former Confederate commissioner in Europe. Although he was a little worried by the last reverses of the South, he seemed full of confidence in the final result. Rost said that the principle obstacle to recognition of the Confederacy by France was the opposition of England and particularly of Lord Russell, fervent abolitionist. He said that the Confederacy will be saved if it can hold out six months longer. He seemed hostile to all transactions concerning slavery. I read in my correspondence from American that Gen. Banks is in New Orleans to relax the rule of martial law.

16 September 1863

Nuits

Dumez tries to cheer Vignaud from his feelings of defeat and depression. Speaks of activities of friends. Thanks Vignaud for giving him the names of important Southerners in Paris to see them. Has seen Mr. Hotze, Confederate commercial agent in London, who is one of his friends.

4 October 1863

Nuits

Dumez reports that his wife's illness is not improving. He does not expect to return to American before winter. He reports that he has continued his correspondence with Jules Michelet [French historian]. Michelet spoke of Maury [Matthew Fontaine, renowned hydrographer and C.S.N. Commander], to whom Michelet had written with great admiration. In order to advance the Confederate cause, Dumez took care to bring Michelet into agreement with Maury's theories and activities.

Dumez is angry that another Southerner in France has not replied to his letter. Comments that such behavior justifies the poor acceptance in France of rich southern planters. Asks Vignaud to let him know how to contact Maury. The supporters of the South are being revived by news that Charleston is peaceful and Washington worried.

12 October 1863

Nuits

Reports need for money created by illness of wife. Discusses personal affairs.

4 November 1863

St. Just

Dumez reports that he has returned to St. Just where his wife can convalesce. Urges Vignaud to contact Maury, the importance of which act Dumez will reveal later. Requests Vignaud to take care of some personal business for him.

15 November 1863

St. Just

Dumez tries to encourage Vignaud to avoid despair. Asks that if Maury writes to Vignaud, Vignaud send Dumez the letter so that he can estimate the effect and extent of the arms that Maury is using. This will be important to help the Southern cause. Requests aid on personal matters.

19 November 1863

St. Just

Dumez asks Vignaud to make a copy of Maury's letter because Dumez cannot read his writing. He promises to keep the original and to give the copy to Michelet. Comments on a memorial written by Vignaud concerning the Southern cause.

11 December 1863

St. Just

Maury's letter was given to Michelet, who was pleased with its flattering judgment of him. But Michelet's ideas have not been changed and he told Dumez that he is still not favorable to the South. The recent news from America is not favorable for the South; Dumez wonders if the South will lose its independence. Comments on suffering in New Orleans.

29 December 1863

Paris

Dumez asks Vignaud to see Mr. Slidell and ask him if the Confederacy would be willing to spend 150,000-200,000 francs to gain to its support the newspaper with the largest circulation in France (Le

Siècle). If so, Dumez knows someone who will arrange the transaction.

6 January 1864

St Just

The person who proposed to help the South buy the support of Le Siècle was Mr. Chavasse, a merchant, and close to the proprietors of the paper. Dumez believes that if the paper, presently hostile to the South, could be brought to the support of the Confederate cause, it would bring about official recognition of the Confederate government.

18 January 1864

St. Just

Dumez regrets that Confederate representatives do not choose to profit from the opportunity (of buying the support of Le Siècle). He believes it is necessary to maintain relations with M. Chavasse until support for the plan can be aroused.

29 January 1864

St. Just

Dumez comments that Charleston seems about to fall. Thiers has communicated from Mexico that the integrity of the U.S. is going to be maintained. Emile Ollivier has pronounced himself against the Confederacy.

States that the Confederacy has a chance for success in the foundation of the Mexican empire. But the great unpopularity of the Empire will be increased if the French expedition in Mexico complicates itself by recognizing the Confederate government. How foolish to dream of an alliance with Maxmillian or to implore the intervention of the Pope, when they should have won the support of the European liberals. The principle of the sovereignty of the states is at stake. Necessary to rid Confederate navy of its old policy and to provide it with young and intelligent staff.

13 February 1864

St. Just

Dumez has learned that De Leon has renounced the Confederate cause. He was one of its most active supporters. Now it is necessary to fear the loss of the support of L'Opinion.

2 March 1864

St. Just

Dumez cheers Vignaud, tells him to keep working for the cause, to stay in contact with men who can aid the Southern cause. Speaks to Vignaud's literary activities.

16 March 1864

St. Just

Dumez reports having received letters from Lefranc and Lemaitre which are encouraging for Louisiana if not for the South. Military regime is going to be replaced by civil government.

Dumez says he is planning to write a history of Louisiana. Speaks of personal business affairs.

24 March 1864

St. Just

Dumez speaks of Vignaud's post at the Confederate legation. His Memorial will flourish with the Mexican empire, which seems more stable now that it has the forced adhesion of the U.S. Reports that the Archduke Maximilian seems about to form a treaty of union between France and the Confederacy and that he is privately very sympathetic to the Confederates.

Speaks of projected literary journal. Mentions that he saw in Le Siècle some dispatches that seemed favorable to the Confederacy. Asks Vignaud to tell him about the opinions he has heard in his quasi-official capacity.

6 April 1864

St. Just

Dumez comments on Vignaud's appointment to the post formerly occupied by Aucaigne. Comments on corruption in the world of the press. Warns him against becoming involved in this “moral ruin” as Confederate agent. Discusses relations with the press, policies of furthering the southern cause by publishing in the French press.

25 May 1864

Bourges

Dumez reports that he expects to leave France in June.

6 June 1864

Bourges

Dumez announces his departure for America from Bordeaux in a few days. Gives final instructions to Vignaud.

21 June 1864

Royan

Writes from aboard ship, about to sail. Expects to arrive in New Orleans in 45-60 days. Describes ship, accommodations, other passengers.

20 November 1864

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez discusses newspaper situation in New Orleans, his efforts to start a new paper. Asks Vignaud to keep him informed of what is happening in Confederate diplomacy.

16 December 1864

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez says that re-election of Lincoln means a continuation of the war, perhaps for four years longer. Reveals a plan to assist the Southern cause: to establish in Washington a weekly correspondence to send news to the French press. Believes this would have influence on the public opinion.

17 February 1865

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez reports that communication is very difficult between the country and the city, and this accounts for the fact that he has not written.

Comments that it is time that Europe decided what role it wants to play in American affairs, because

the Confederacy is visibly weakening since autumn. If the European powers don't act, they will see the Monroe Doctrine added as the first device on the American flag.

5 August 1865

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez says that he had waited to write until the fall of the Confederacy was over. Speaks of Southern attitudes toward slavery, national politics, forthcoming elections and predicted votes of African Americans. Comments on American relations with France regarding Mexico.

24 September 1865

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez writes of the newspaper business, mood and politics of Reconstruction, relations with U.S. government.

21 January 1866

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez speaks of a mutual friend who wishes to go into diplomacy, of differing national opinions.

26 February 1866

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez encourages Vignaud in his work. Mentions his own enterprises in cotton and desire to return to journalism in France.

9 April 1866

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez says he understands Vignaud's desire to return to Louisiana and establish a serious journal. Says this must be done later, now is not the time. Speaks of changes in business, mentions African American journal. Creole population of past now much changed.

Speaks of economic conditions, conditions of war were bad for large planters but favored small ones.

6 May 1866

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez speaks of article in French journal.

20 April 1866

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez discusses history of newspaper L'Étoile de la Nouvelle Orleans. Speaks of other N.O. newspapers and of the business.

16 June 1866

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez speaks of newspapers, his own business efforts, of mutual acquaintances.

16 July 1866

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez comments on having received French newspapers. Speaks of Marist Fathers who have taken

over education in Jefferson College in rivalry with Jesuits. Speaks of the development of his plantation.

26 July 1866

St. Jean Baptiste

Advises Vignaud not to long so much for New Orleans. Mentions Vignaud's desire to revive journalism in New Orleans, discourages him, mentions his own thoughts about returning himself to the newspaper business in New Orleans. Comments on venality of French press.

25 November 1866

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez describes plantation he has acquired. Speaks of starting a Louisiana journal with Vignaud.

8 March 1867

St. Jean Baptiste

Thanks Vignaud for sending French journals, speaks of sending some money to defray his expenses. Speaks of having established newspaper in St. Jean Baptiste Parish.

18 August 1867

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez asks Vignaud to write to him. Speaks of sending him money to defray his expenses.

30 September 1867

St. Jean Baptiste

Thanks Vignaud for sending him French journals. Speaks of Vignaud's career, of his own farming.

24 October 1869

St. Jean Baptiste

Speaks of Vignaud's success in France. Mentions plan in South to attract Chinese immigration, and of another party which favors attracting immigration from Europe, especially from France. Dumez favors European immigration and enlarges plan to develop it.

18 April 1870

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste Parish

Dumez writes of an illness just past, of his plan to go to France to place an adopted son in college. Asks Vignaud to help a friend, M. Jacques Caire.

23 July 1871

Edgar, La.

Dumez expresses his concern for welfare of Vignaud during the Franco-Prussian War. Speaks of a “radical schism” which might deliver the South from problems left by the war. Discusses political situation in France in aftermath of war and collapse of Empire.

3 October 1871

Edgar, La.

Dumez discusses possibilities for his return to France. Describes his condition in Louisiana,

corruption, degradation of population. Asks Vignaud for advice on the move.

10 December 1871

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez discusses further his plans to emigrate to France.

12 September 1872

Edgar, La.

Dumez speaks of his remarriage, his hopes to return to France. Says that his newspaper has suffered under the Carpetbaggers but that commerce has improved and that there is more material progress than before the War. Speaks of politics, especially problems with conservative forces in Louisiana.

28 May 1873

Edgar, La.

Dumez writes of a mutual friend. Speaks of his own quiet life. Congratulates Vignaud on his new appointment.

22 August 1873

St. Jean Baptiste

Concerns personal matters.

22 August 1873

Edgar, La.

Letter addressed to “Bouvier.” Concerns personal matters, transmission of printed matter.

6 February 1876

Edgar, La.

Dumez writes that he is annoyed that Vignaud has not yet received pecans he had sent him. Speaks of policies of Beauregard. Speaks of American political parties, predicted nomination of Grant for president.

6 July 1876

Edgar, La.

Dumez comments on news of death of Jules Michelet (French historian). Comments on Beauregard, his relations with France. Speaks of American political situation.

12 August 1876

Edgar, La.

Dumez writes critically of Beauregard. Comments on political scene in Louisiana.

22 August 1876

Edgar, La.

Dumez writes about Beauregard, Vignaud's relations with him. Mentions American politics. Mentions a series of tales about African Americans his brother is arranging.

9 September 1876

St. Jean Baptiste

Concerns business matters.

15 September 1876

Edgar, La.

Dumez thanks Vignaud for sending him some articles. Writes about new book, The Centennial History of the U.S., about the publication of a letter of Vignaud, of various newspapers.

23 September 1876

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez discusses planting of eucalyptus trees for shade. Speaks of letter which Vignaud had written concerning Beauregard, its publication in a newspaper, of other papers. Speaks of recent election of Gov. Nichols in Louisiana, of political quarrels. Speaks of publication of book, Centennial History of the United States.

7 October 1876

Edgar, La.

Speaks of electoral campaign for Presidential election. Of gubernatorial election in Louisiana. Speaks of Aucaigne, writer in newspapers, his background and attitudes.

4 November 1876

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez says he is sending Vignaud some pecans. Speaks of publishing, planting eucalyptus trees, American and French political thought, Louisiana politics.

15 November 1876

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez writes of election results of Presidential election, political situation in Louisiana.

5 December 1876

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez writes of sending Vignaud some pecans. Discusses political scene, recent election, national and Louisiana results.

20 January 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez writes about Louisiana politics, Louisiana newspapers.

19 February 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez writes about the results of the election of 1876, about the role played by Louisiana and the South. Deplores the political situation in Louisiana, effects of Reconstruction on the South.

8 March 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Writes about the inauguration of Hayes, effect on La., on Vignaud's position. Discusses personal

matters, newspapers, efforts to plant eucalyptus in Louisiana.

28 March 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez comments on policies of Hayes, on contested gubernatorial election in Louisiana, role of African Americans.

11 April 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez speaks of Vignaud's career, of election of Hayes, of politics.

26 April 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez speaks of national and state politics, of deliverance of La. through political deal with Hayes, of farming.

9 May 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez writes about Vignaud's career, international politics, planting of trees.

17 May 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Letter concerns La. politics, the press, reaction of population of La. to advent of Gov. Nicholls.

2 June 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez comments on politics of Elihu Benjamin Washburn, American minister Plenipotentiary to France, on Vignaud's role in Washburn's work. Discusses French politics. Mentions eucalyptus tress which he planted.

23 June 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez speaks of policies of Lewis Vital Bogy, Senator from Missouri, criticizes system of American diplomatic service.

11 August 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez asks Vignaud to forward copies of newspapers he has been sending Vignaud to mutual friend Mahler. Comments on Vignaud's career. Speaks of activities of Beauregard, La., political scene.

12 September 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez tells Vignaud he has published a letter of Vignaud's in his newspaper relative to the account of Gayarre concerning Kellogg government. Discusses relations of Louisiana with Hayes administration.

16 October 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez speaks of his concern for the results of the election, speaks doubtfully of “New Departure” policy.

10 November 1877

St. Jean Baptiste

Letter concerns personal matters.

28 November 1877

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez comments on Vignaud's promotion to the legation in Romania. Compares his own humble station with Vignaud's. Mentions having distributed some copies of Rameau's Une colonie feodale en Amerique. Writes of American politics.

27 December 1877

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez mentions Beauregard's having been instrumental in convincing late Senator Bogy that Vignaud was worthy of his position in the foreign service. Speaks of mutual acquaintance.

28 December 1877

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez writes letter of introduction for friend Lamothe, who wishes to go to Paris, and asks Vignaud to help him.

5 January 1878

St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez writes about gift of pecans he sent Vignaud, about a new novel and publishing business.

28 January 1878

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez writes of mutual friends, asks for copies of newspapers.

2 February 1878

St. Jean Baptiste

Discusses personal matters.

16 February 1878

St. Jean Baptiste

Discusses books and newspapers.

15 March 1878

St. Jean Baptiste

Discusses purchase of dictionary which he wishes Vignaud to perform for him.

23 March 1878

St. Jean Baptiste

Letter concerns purchase of dictionary and personal matters.

3 May 1878

St. Jean Baptiste

Letter concerns personal matters, purchase of dictionary. Mentions situation of politics in La.

1 June 1878

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Letter concerns mutual acquaintances, purchase of French dictionary.

4 July 1878

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Mentions having written letter of introduction for brother-in-law to meet Vignaud. Mentions La. political situation.

20 July 1878

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Letter concerns mutual friend, purchase of French dictionary. Comments on politics of Louisiana Bourbons, Republican party.

10 August 1878

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez writes of his brother-in-law, who has met Vignaud in Paris. Discusses political and economic situation in Louisiana, role of legislature, problem of suffrage.

17 September 1878

Edgar, St. Jean Baptiste

Dumez mentions panic of country because of yellow fever epidemic. Asks Vignaud to investigate French newspapers for a friend.