Selected Bibliography

Online Records and Documents

Subject Guides and Exhibits

Organizations and Online Communities

Selected Bibliography

Anthony, Arthé A. Picturing Black New Orleans: A Creole Photographer's View of the Early Twentieth Century. University of Florida Press, 2012.

Bell, Caryn. Revolution, Romanticism, and the Afro-Creole Protest Tradition in Louisiana, 1718-1868. Louisiana State University Press, 1997.

Brasseaux, Carl. French, Cajun, Creole, Houma: A Primer on Francophone Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, 2005.

Buchanan, Thomas C. Black Life on the Mississippi: Slaves, Free Blacks, and the Western Steamboat World. University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Burton, H. Sophie and F. Todd Smith. Colonial Natchitoches: A Creole Community on the Louisiana-Texas Frontier. Texas A&M University Press, 1998.

Cassimere, Raphael. African Americans in New Orleans Before the Civil War. College of Urban and Public Affairs, University of New Orleans, 1995.

Childs, Matt. Free People of Color (Oxford Bibliographies). Oxford University Press, 2011.

Christian, Marcus. Negro Ironworkers of Louisiana, 1718-1900. Pelican Publishing, 1972.

Clark, Emily. The Strange History of the American Quadroon: Free Women of Color in the Revolutionary Atlantic World. University of North Carolina Press, 2013.

Cohen, David W. and Jack P. Greene, eds. Neither Slave nor Free: The Freedmen of African Descent in the Slave Societies of the New World. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.

Desdunes, Rodolphe Lucien. Our People and Our History: Fifty Creole Portraits. Louisiana State University Press, 2001.

Dessens, Nathalie. From Saint-Domingue to New Orleans: Migration and Influences. 1st ed. University Press of Florida, 2007.

Dormon, James H. Creoles of Color of the Gulf South. University of Tennessee Press, 1996.

Emanuel, Rachel Lorraine. A More Noble Cause: A. P. Tureaud and the Struggle for Civil Rights in Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, 2011.

Gaspar, David Barry and Darlene Clark Hine. Beyond Bondage: Free Women of Color in the Americas. University of Illinois Press, 2004.

Gehman, Mary.  The Free People of Color of New Orleans: An Introduction. Margaret Media, 1994.

Gould, Virginia Meacham. Chained to the Rock of Adversity: To be Free, Black, and Female in the Old South. University of Georgia Press, 1998.

Guillory, Monique. Some Enchanted Evening on the Auction Block the Cultural Legacy of the New Orleans Quadroon Balls. New York: Guillory, 1999.

Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo. Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Louisiana State University Press, 1995.

Hanger, Kimberly S. Bounded Lives, Bounded Places: Free Black Society in Colonial New Orleans, 1769-1803. Duke University Press, 1997.

Haskins, James. The Creoles of Color of New Orleans. (New York): Crowell, 1975.

Herrin, M. H. The Creole Aristocracy. (New York): Exposition Press, 1952.

Hirsch, Arnold R. Dutch Morial: Old Creole in the New South. New Orleans: College of Urban & Public Affairs, University of New Orleans, 1990.

Hirsch, Arnold R., and Joseph Logsdon. Creole New Orleans: Race and Americanization. Louisiana State University Press, 1992.

Hobratsch, Ben Melvin. "Creole Angel: The Self Identification of the Free People of Color of Antebellum New Orleans." University of North Texas, History, 2006.

Horton, James Oliver. Free People of Color: Inside the African American Community. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1993.

Ingersoll, Thomas. Mammon and Manon in Early New Orleans: The First Slave Society in the Deep South, 1718-1819. University of Tennessee Press, 1999.

Jones, Bernie D. Fathers of Conscience: Mixed-Race Inheritance in the Antebellum South. University of Georgia Press, 2009.

Kein, Sybil. Creole: The History and Legacy of Louisiana's Free People of Color. Louisiana State University Press, 2000.

King, Stewart R. The Encyclopedia of Free Blacks and People of Color in the Americas. Facts on File, 2012.

Landers, Jane. Against the Odds: Free Blacks in the Slave Societies of the Americas. Routledge, 1996.

Landers, Jane. Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolution. Harvard University Press, 2010.

Marciacq, J. L, and J. L Sollée, eds. L'Album Littéraire: Journal Des Jeunes Gens, Amateurs De Littérature. Nouvelle-Orléans [La.]: J.L. Sollée, n.d.

McConnell, Roland C. Negro Troops of Antebellum Louisiana: A History of the Battalion of Free Men of Color. Louisiana State University studies no. 13. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1968.

Mills, Gary B. The Forgotten People: Cane River's Creoles of Color. Louisiana State University Press, 2013.

Moscou, Margot. New Orleans' Free-Men-of-Color Cabinet Makers in the New Orleans Furniture Trade 1800-1850. Xavier Review Press, 2008.

Rankin, David. The Forgotten People: Free People of Color in New Orleans, 1850-1870. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1976.

Scott, Rebecca J. and Jean M. Hébrard. Freedom Papers: An Atlantic Odyssey in the Age of Emancipation.  Harvard University Press, 2012.

Smith, Johanna Lee Davis. Mulatto Bend: Free People of Color in Lousiiana, 1763-1865. Dissertation, Tulane University, 2012.

Sterkx, H. E. The Free Negro in Ante-Bellum Louisiana. Associated University Press, 1972.

Thompson, Shirley Elizabeth. Exiles at Home: The Struggle to Become American in Creole New Orleans. Harvard University Press, 2009.

Thompson, Shirley Elizabeth. The Passing of a People: Creoles of Color in Mid-Nineteenth Century New Orleans. Dissertation, Harvard University, 2001.

Toledano, Roulhac, Sally Kittredge Evans, and Mary Louise Christovich. New Orleans Architecture, Volume IV: The Creole Faubourgs. New Orleans Architecture Series. New Orleans: Pelican Publishing Company, 1974.

West, Emily. Family or Freedom: People of Color in the Antebellum South. University of Kentucky Press, 2012.

Whitten, David O. Andrew Durnford: A Black Sugar Planter in the Antebellum South. Northwestern State University Press, 1981.

Wilson, Carol. Freedom at Risk: The Kidnapping of Free Blacks in America, 1780-1865. University Press of Kentucky, 2004.

[Back to Top]


Online Records and Documents

Afro-Louisiana History and Genealogy, 1718-1820
Database of records pertaining to 100,000 slaves brought to Louisiana.

Digital Library on American Slavery (University of North Carolina at Greensboro)
This site contains detailed information on 150,000 individuals, including slaves, free people of color, and whites, drawn from a variety of legal documents.

Records Relating to Slavery, Free People of Color, and Freedmen (New Orleans Public Library)
Guide to genealogical materials in the library's collections.

Slave and Free People of Color Baptismal Records (Archdiocese of New Orleans)
Digital images of church records, mostly in Spanish, 1777-1812.

St. Augustine Catholic Church Cemetery
List of interments at this church founded by Augustin Metoyer, a free person of color.

The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Record (University of Virginia)
A collection of 1,280 images.  Includes a section titled "Domestic Servants and Free People of Color."

[Back to Top]


Subject Guides and Exhibits

African Americans in New Orleans: Les Gens de Couleur Libres
An online exhibit created in 1999 by the Louisiana Division of the New Orleans Public Library in connection with the 300th anniversary of the French in Louisiana.  Includes biographies of prominent free people of color and images of them, their works, and associated places in New Orleans.
An online reference guide to African American history.

Creoles and Free People of Color Subject Guide (Amistad Research Center)
Guide to research materials at the nation's oldest, largest and most comprehensive independent archive specializing in the history of African Americans and other Ethnic Minorities.

[Back to Top]


Organizations and Online Communities

Website of a group of family historians and genealogists focused on researching and documenting the lives of ethnically diverse Louisiana and Gulf Coast Creole families.

La Creole
Website of the Louisiana Creole Research Association, a New Orleans based non-profit family research organization dedicated to the study of the history and culture of the Creoles of Color of Louisiana through ancestral research, education, and celebration.

Le Musée de f.p.c.
Website of Le Musée de f.p.c., a historic house museum located on Esplanade Avenue in New Orleans. The museum is dedicated exclusively to preserving the material culture of and telling the story of free people of color.

Louisiana Creole Heritage Center (Northwestern State University)
This website hosts the Creole Family History Database, a resource for researching free people of color in the Natchitoches area.

Natchitoches Genealogical and Historical Association

[Back to Top]